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Okra. Vrata med Sredozemljem in Srednjo Evropo.
Ocra. The gateway between the Mediterranean and Central Europe.

Authors: Alma Bavdek, Jana Horvat
Year: 2009

The routes between the north Adriatic and the Apennine peninsula on the west and the Balkans and the central Danubian plains on the east ran across Razdrto ever since ancient times. In the late prehistory and in the early Roman era the pass of Razdrto was known under the name of Ocra as was the mountain above it.
Several Bronze age sites were discovered in the area of the Razdrto pass.
The posts in the Razdrto area from the end of the 2nd and first half of the 1st century BC (Mandrga, Preval) differ from the other sites along the east Alpine routes, as they were not spatially linked to any of the existing indigenous settlements and did not show any contact with the surroundings even with their small objects. Most of the remains can be explained as traces of Roman passengers who stopped at Razdrto for a shorter period of time and not as remnants of a significant Roman settlement.
A gravel covered road was constructed across the Razdrto pass in the second half of the 1st century BC or in the Augustan period. A roadside building was erected in the middle or late Augustan period and demolished in the mid 1st century AD.
The shift of transit from Razdrto to Hrušica (Ad Pirum) took place in the 1st century AD. Post 1st century AD written sources no longer mention the road across Ocra, and the archaeological remains dating after the mid 1st century AD are extremely modest at Razdrto.

Table of content

Kratice / Abbreviations

Predgovor / Foreword

Geografski in zgodovinski oris Pivške kotpne in Razdrtega / Geographic and historic representation of Razdrto and the Pivka basin

Antični pisni viri o Okri / Literary sources on Ocra

Arheološka najdišča na območju Razdrtega / Archaeological sites in Razdrto and its vicinity

Zaščitne arheološke raziskave leta 1989 / 1989 rescue archaeological excavation

Goli vrh

  • Metoda terenskega dela / Fieldwork method
  • Terenski izvid / Fieldwork results
  • Časovna opredelitev predmetov / Chronology of the objects
  • Sklep / Conclusions


  • Metoda terenskega dela / Fieldwork method
  • Terenski izvid / Fieldwork results
  • Analiza struktur / Analysis of structures
  • Analiza drobnih najdb / Small finds analysis
    • Relativna kronologija 2. in 1. st. pr. Kr. / Relative chronology for 2nd and 1st century BC
    • Kovinski predmeti / Metal objects
    • Steklo /
    • Keramika / Pottery
  • Interpretacija / Interpretation


  • Metoda terenskega dela / Fieldwork method
  • Terenski izvid / Fieldwork results
  • Analiza struktur / Analysis of structures
  • Analiza drobnih najdb / Small finds analysis
    • Kurišče v kvadrantu D11 / Burnt surface in quadrant D11
    • Ruševina obcestne stavbe / Destruction layer of a roadside building
    • Jarek 1 / Ditch 1
    • Drenaža / Drainage
    • Površinske najdbe / Surface finds
  • Interpretacija / Interpretation

Zaključek: Razdrto, Okra in poti čez Alpe / Conclusions: Razdrto, Ocra and routes leading across the Alps

  • Bronasta in starejša železna doba na Notranjskem / The Bronze and Early Iron Age in the Notranjska region
  • Mlajša železna doba na Notranjskem / Late Iron Age in the Notranjska region
  • Rimljani na vznožju jugovzhodnih Alp / Romans at the foothills of the southeastern Alps
  • Rimski sledovi na Notranjskem / Roman traces in the Notranjska region
    • 2. st. pr. Kr. / 2nd century BC
    • Poznolatenska doba / Late La Tène period
    • Razdrto v latenskem obdobju / Razdrto in the La Tène period
  • Poti čez jugovzhodne Alpe v 2. in 1. st. pr. Kr. / Routes across the southeast Alps in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC
    • Rimske ceste v Furlanski nižini / Roman roads in the Friuli Plain
    • Poti čez Karnijske Alpe / The routes across the Carnic Alps
    • Pot ob Nadiži in Soči / The route along the Nadiža and Soča rivers
    • Poti čez Alpe in Razdrto / The routes across the Alps and Razdrto
  • Razdrto v zgodnjecesarskem obdobju / Razdrto in the Early Imperial period
  • Nova cestna mreža od avgustejskega obdobja dalje / The new road network from the Augustan period onwards
  • Razdrto v pozni rimski dobi / Razdrto in the Late Roman period

Literatura / Bibliography

Katalog / Catalogue

  • Uvod / Introduction
  • Keramične zvrsti / Ceramic fabrics
  • Opisi predmetov / Description of the objects
    • Prevodi / Translations
    • Kratice / Abbreviations
    • Goli vrh
    • Mandrga
    • Preval

Table / Plates

Priloga / Appendix


archaeological finds
archaeological sites


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